The impact of fashion on the environment: understanding the issues and acting on them

6 min read
May 15, 2024 at 12:00 PM
How does fashion impact the environment?

The fashion industry is known to have a strong negative impact on the environment, but society is becoming increasingly aware of the consequences of its activities on the planet's resources and of the need to make significant changes to its mechanisms and operating methods.

How is the fashion industry contributing to GHG emissions?

The fashion industry is responsible for approximately 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions, this is more than the emissions of all international flights and maritime shipping combined2. Fashion has an impact on the environment in terms of CO2 emissions and is also responsible for 35% of the plastic microfibres released in oceans, and 20% of industrial water pollution3

This harmful environmental impact is multiplied by the increasingly high demand for the production of clothes. What is now known as 'fast fashion' - the sale of cheap, low-quality clothes - has stimulated the creation of new collections and new products. The use of unsustainable materials, and an increasing amount of waste in the production and retail phases as collections are renewed every six months.

The result? Thousands of unsold clothing end up in landfills each year. It has become clear that the fashion industry needs a revolution to reduce its environmental impact and align to a more sustainable long-run trajectory. 

What about the environmental impact of fashion weeks?

Fashion has always had a close relationship with climate. As seasons change, fashion trends and products change too. For this reason, fashion weeks are held annually in February for the Autumn/Winter collection and in September for the Spring/Summer collection. This inherent relationship between fashion and climate has, however, taken a negative connotation. Fashion is no longer changing with climate but it is actually changing climate. 

Just like the production of fashion products, fashion weeks also significantly impacts the environment4. The event's carbon footprint includes traveling, accommodation, transportation of the collections, and intercity traveling of fashion actors. Along with, press activities and the associated set up in different locations.

The environmental impact of Fashion Week

© Chanel Automne/Hiver 2017/18 Patrick Kovarik AFP

How can fashion become more sustainable? 

The first fundamental aspect that must be addressed to increase sustainability in the fashion industry is the textile and materials used. It is crucial to shift to more sustainable and less polluting materials that minimize environmental impacts when produced, washed, and recycled.

The fashion industry has found three main ways to improve its impact on ecosystems and climate change.

  1. Switch to renewable energy:

    If fashion firms include at least 60% of renewable energy in their processes, emissions from the sector could be reduced by around 50%5.

  2. Increase energy efficiency.

    This can be done by reducing energy use to perform the same tasks. For instance, 10,000 liters of water are currently required to produce a single pair of jeans6. This amount must be reduced through energy efficiency practices.

  3. Align the fashion industry to the circular economy model:

    New recyclable materials should be used, and all materials that release microfiber plastics should be excluded. In addition, the supply of clothes must be aligned to demand to avoid overproduction and consequent waste. Today, less than 1% of the materials used to produce clothing are recycled3

For more tips on how to reduce your environmental impact, read our article on sustainable fashion

sustainable fashion

How can the environmental impact of fashion weeks be reduced?

Concerning fashion weeks, several things can be done to increase sustainability. Those of which include:

  1. Combine seasons and gender fashion by having a single fashion week per year instead of two;
  2. Increase the number of online events to decrease travel emissions;
  3. Turn fashion weeks into climate awareness.

Fashion weeks are a great outlet to raise awareness of the environmental impact of fashion. On the one hand, to encourage fashion brands to apply codes of ethics, which the Fashion Industry Charter does by promoting sustainability in the industry, on the other hand, to educate the audience about climate change issues.

The importance of fashion in our society has revived consumers' consciousness

As solutions for a more sustainable fashion supply have been outlined, it is important to highlight that consumers also have a role to play. They are actors of the change as much as retailers. The World Bank has provided a list of actions consumers can implement to contribute to the sustainable fashion industry. These include repairing clothes, donating them, purchasing according to quality criteria instead of quantity, and buying second-hand clothing. We have already pointed out that firms waste many resources, and many clothes go unsold and to waste, but consumers do, too: they never use as much as 40% of purchased clothing in some countries6.

However, research has shown that consumer awareness is increasing as more customers press their favorite brands to become more sustainable7. According to the BCG, more than 50% of consumers consider the environmental and societal actions of brands, and a third has already stopped buying clothes of a certain brand because of its bad environmental practices. This demonstrates that consumers have the power to drive this change. 

How can ClimateSeed help companies in the textile industry  in their environmental approach?

At ClimateSeed, we have developed the ideal emissions monitoring tool, which facilitates the calculation of your carbon footprint whatever your sector. The different missions we have conducted with textile companies have allowed us to build robust databases and to have a detailed understanding of the sector's value chain. Also, we provide the expertise and support necessary for textile companies to contribute positively to the fight against climate change by financing high-quality carbon removal and avoidance projects, carefully selected by our experts, and which generate carbon credits.

Contact us to start your approach.


In conclusion, fashion brands must reconsider their environmental impact and meet customers' demands by committing to more sustainable practices. As outlined in this article, many solutions already exist. By changing our shopping habits, we can all positively impact the planet!

fashion in sustainability


What are the main factors in the fashion industry's environmental impact?
The main factors in the fashion industry's environmental impact are : 
  • Water use: Textile production consumes a huge amount of water, as much as 10,000 litres for a single pair of jeans.
  • Water pollution: The chemicals used in textile dyeing pollute watercourses.
  • Plastic microfibres: 35% of plastic microfibres in the oceans come from synthetic clothing.
  • Textile waste: Overproduction of clothing leads to large quantities of non-biodegradable waste.
  • Unsustainable materials: The use of materials such as polyester, derived from petroleum, increases the environmental impact.
  • Transport: Emissions linked to the transport of clothing contribute to the industry's carbon footprint.
  • Seasonal fashion: Fashion Weeks and frequent collections increase the pressure on production and consumption.
What impact does second-hand clothing have on the fashion industry?

Second-hand clothes have a significant impact on the fashion industry by reducing textile waste and greenhouse gas emissions, while saving precious natural resources such as water and energy.

By extending the life of garments, they support a circular economy and reduce the demand for the production of new items. This makes fashion more accessible and economical for consumers. In addition, the growing popularity of second-hand clothing is raising consumer awareness of sustainable consumption practices, contributing to a positive change in the fashion industry.

What is fast fashion and why is it problematic?

Fast fashion is a model of rapid, low-cost production of low-quality clothing, responding quickly to fashion trends.

It is problematic because it leads to massive overproduction, generating textile waste and excessive use of unsustainable resources such as water and energy. This model encourages rapid and frequent consumption, which increases waste and greenhouse gas emissions.

Finally, fast fashion contributes to precarious working conditions in the developing countries where the clothes are often manufactured.

How does ClimateSeed help textile companies measure their carbon footprint?

ClimateSeed helps companies in the textile sector to measure their GHG emissions (Scopes 1, 2 and 3) using its GEMS (GHG Emissions Management Software) platform and its team of consultants who are experts in low-carbon strategy.

These consultants are trained in the Bilan Carbone® methodology and have extensive expertise in ISO 14064, the GHG protocol and other national regulatory standards.

They can support customers in the textile sector throughout the various phases of the process: data collection, organisation, entry and interpretation, co-creation of the transition plan, etc. 

Contact us for more information. 

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  1. Sustainable Development Goals :
  2. World Bank "How much do our wardrobes cost to the environment?":
  3. Ellen Macarthur Foundation "A New Textiles Economy: Redesigning Fashions' Future":
  4. Ordre "Zero To Market":
  5. Quantis "Measuring Fashion Environmental Impact of the Global Apparel and Footwear Industry Story": 
  6. France Bleu "Chiffre du jour : Il faut 1000 litres d'eau pour fabriquer un pantalon en toile jean: 
CTA Case Study-EN Wool and the Gang